Healthy Soils Are: covered all the time
Keep it covered, please!
If you’re trying to make your soil healthier, you shouldn’t see it very often. In other words, soil should always be covered by growing plants, their residues, or a combination of the two.
Keeping the soil covered all the time makes perfect sense when you realize that healthy soils are full of life and that the microorganisms living in the soil have the same needs as other living creatures. They need food and cover to survive.
When you have a vegetative cover on the soil, especially a living cover, you offer those microbes both food and shelter. Some scientists say when you till the soil and remove crop residues, the effects are as devastating to soil microbes as a combination of an earthquake, hurricane, tornado, and forest fire would be to humans.
From the perspective of the living creatures within the soil, a tillage tool like a chisel shank has the effect of ripping the ground like an earthquake; removing residue is like a tornado ripping the roof off a house; uncovered soil can be drenched and whisked away by gushing water and wind like that of a hurricane—or scorched in the hot sun like an out-of-control fire.
Stop the splash, harvest the benefits
When a falling raindrop explodes as it hits bare soil, it dislodges unprotected soil particles, and begins the process of soil erosion. Cover crops and plant residue prevent that violent splash on soil, protecting soil aggregates from being pounded by falling raindrops.
Safe from disintegration by the hammering energy of raindrops, the structure of healthy soils remains intact, which prevents soil crusting. In this protective environment, water infiltrates the soil and becomes available to plant roots.
A mulch of crop residues or living plants on the soil surface also suppresses weeds early in the growing season, giving the primary crop a competitive advantage. This is especially the case if the cover crop is rolled prior to planting the main crop because the entire soil surface is covered and protected.
Cover crops can build moisture reserves far better than row crops can by themselves. Cover crops open pores and small channels in the soil for better water infiltration, and the organic matter they build helps retain both moisture and nutrients.
The cool, moist soil of cover crops also provides favorable habitat for many organisms that decompose residues and recycle nutrients for the next crop. Providing a good habitat for these organisms can increase residue decomposition, and improve nutrient cycling, by up to 25 percent.
Beyond cover, living roots offer much more
While it’s easy to see the importance of giving the soil protection above the ground, it’s not always as easy to recognize benefits living covers provide below the surface.
Through their roots, living plants offer soil microbes their easiest, most reliable food source. Because these soil microbes need a consistent food source throughout the year to thrive, cropping plans that include crop rotations with cover crops throughout the growing season (or perennial grasses and legumes) can help sustain them year-round.
Every soil organism has something it eats…and something that eats it. Each organism and each bit of plant residue is important to the complex food web under the soil surface. While each source of microbial food is important to a balanced food web in a healthy soil, there is no better food for soil microbes than the sugars exuded by living roots.
Living plants maintain a rhizosphere, an area of concentrated microbial activity close to the root. The rhizosphere is the most active part of the soil biology because it is where the most easy-to-eat food is available for microbes. It’s also critical for plant growth and health, because those microbes, in turn, provide essential nutrient cycling for crops.
Because living roots provide the easiest source of food for soil microbes, growing perennial crops or long-season cover crops is the key to feeding the foundational species of the soil food web—so they’ll be healthy and ready to perform throughout the primary growing season.
Cover Saves Scarce Water
Extreme temperature changes and high winds characteristic of the semiarid, short-grass prairie of the Great Plains can have drastic and devastating effects on exposed soil. In the High Plains sub-region of the Great Plains, more than 65 percent of the soil must remain covered to limit evaporation of water.
Bare soil heats up quickly in direct sunlight; and the hotter it gets, the faster water evaporates from it. In this rainfall-limited area (average annual rainfall is 10-20 inches), maintaining soil cover is a key to profitable agricultural production.
The combination of high winds and hot temperatures wastes water if soils aren’t covered. However, ground cover (both living and residues) limits the drying effect of wind, shades the soil from hot sun, and traps snow during winter. All of which add up to more water infiltrating into the soil and less evaporating into the air.
To learn more about soil health visit www.nrcs.usda.gov.